As the country is one and half years away from the 2020 general elections, the survey questionnaire was designed to probe citizens’ opinions or perceptions concerning the upcoming elections, such as citizens’ preferences of candidates both in past and future elections, perceptions of different political parties, and the parties that best represent their interests. Moreover, the survey also assesses citizens’ perceptions of the performance of both Union-level and state/region Hluttaws and MPs, and citizens’ perceptions of the current general situation in Myanmar. The survey also includes core questions that PACE has asked since 2015, such as citizens’ civic and political participation, their level of interest in politics, the level of interpersonal trust and trust in institutions.
Recruitment and Training
The 2019 survey on “Citizen’s Political Preferences for 2020” was the fifth nationwide survey conducted by PACE. To carry out the survey, PACE recruited and trained 511 volunteers to carry out the survey by randomly selecting households, conducting interviews and returning questionnaires to PACE. Twenty-one enumerator trainings were conducted in seven locations; Lashio, Mandalay, Mawlamyine, Sittwe, Tachileik, Taunggyi as well as Yangon, and included interview role-plays and practical exercises in household and respondent selection.
Additionally, 17 state/region coordinators were assigned to oversee the work of enumerators. PACE has recruited 50 spot-checkers, trained for one day in Yangon and deployed March 4 to 5, 2019 to assess the quality of the interviews.
All PACE survey volunteers signed a Code of Conduct and confidentiality pledge.
PACE enumerators deployed to conduct the survey on March 1 to 3, 2019. During deployment, PACE enumerators were supervised and assisted by 17 PACE state and regional coordinators around the country and by PACE’s core team in Yangon.
In nearly all locations, PACE was able to deploy with little difficulty. However, in 51 locations PACE enumerators were unable to deploy or conduct surveys according to the procedures. In 42 locations (three in Kachin, one in Karen, one in Mon, five in Rakhine, and thirty-two in Shan), this was due to security concerns. Out of nine locations, in five locations, local authorities did not allow PACE’s enumerators to conduct the interviews, in one case, the village no longer existed, and in three locations, enumerators did not conduct the interviews.
Interest in Politics
Civic & Political Participation
Difference Between Confidence & No-Confidence in Institutions
Except for 2016, when there was a post-election increase, there have been no significant changes in the level of interpersonal trust in Myanmar.